Fodder production problem in Pakistan

Pakistan is blessed with intensive form of livestock population. In Pakistan current livestock population is 163.0 million per head. The livestock population increases at the rate of 4.2% per year.

Fodder production problem in Pakistan

To fulfill the requirement of animals as respect to fodder increase day by day. Fodder production and fodder production marketing leading toward a deep crisis in Pakistan.

There are no communication interaction between farmer and researcher. No interest of government in fodder production. Fodder production having dropped from 5 acre to 4.3m acres in Pakistan.

Statistical Analysis of Fodder Crop Area:

In Pakistan total cropped area is 22.6 million ha but only 10.3% fodder grown of 22.6 million ha. The four provinces of Pakistan share different contribution as respect to fodder crop. Total fodder production area in Pakistan are 2.31 million ha .The sharing of fodder production in Pakistan are following as:

Agriculture problems

Pakistan

    • Punjab: 82.56%
    • Sindh: 11.50%
    • KPK: 4.48%
  • Baluchistan: 1.46%

The area under fodder cropped minor fluctuation during 1976-77 from 2.6 million hectare to 2.31 million hectare (2009-10).The annual fodder production is 22.5 t ha-1 and overall fodder production is 51.92 million tons. The area under Rabi and Kharif fodder are following as:

Crop

Area(mha)

Fodder production(mt)

Kharif Fodder Crops

Sorghum

0.41

6.31

Millet

0.11

0.76

Sorghum sudan hybrid

0.10

1.42

Guar

0.21

3.05

Maize

0.09

0.96

Other kharif crops

0.41

6.12

Rabi Fodder Crops

Berseem

0.71

22.61

Lucern

0.13

5.32

Shaftal

0.02

0.81

Rape & Mustard

0.02

0.34

Other Rabi Crops

0.10

4.22

Total

2.31

51.92

Insect pest and disease problem:

Invading insect and disease are problem in fodder production. Some serious insect are gram caterpillar, army worm and aphid. These insect damage the fodder production. The insect are controlled by pesticide for some fodder because no pesticide recommended for fodder crop.

Beside insect pest, some disease are damage the fodder crop in which red leaf spot, wilt, root rot and stem rot. These are viral diseases and cannot easily controlled. Red leaf spot are serious disease in sorghum crop and 90-95 % sorghum crop are damage due to this disease. 40 to 50 % losses of fodder crop by insect pest and sometime fodder crops are completely damage due to diseases.

Problem in farmer’s field:

  • Non availability of land
  • No land levelling
  • Poor management practices
  • Less fertility level in soil about
  • Less application of input

Lack of varieties:

In Pakistan, there are no research for fodder production. Some private companies importing the seed for fodder production. No infrastructure developed for fodder production in Pakistan and no research for fodder production. Ten seed varieties of fodders that cover 98 pc of acreage, on average. 60 maunds yield per acre are reduced to 34 maunds due to mismanagement practices of farmers.

So, 26 pc yield gap create between original potential of fodder crop. It is estimated that 5 to 10pc area of fodder crops is grown with improved seed production. Only 11 % improved fodder seed is produced locally. The seed requirement are fulfilled by either importing seeds, purchasing seed from the farmer without consideration of seed production guidelines.

Recently, a number of private seed companies have entered in fodder production in the country. The private companies include Jullundar seed company based at Arifwala; younas seed corporation and Green gold Faisalabad for domestic fodder crops seed production.

Solution to increased fodder crop production:

  • Coordination
  • Research
  • Development/ Services

 Coordination:

  • Germplasm acquisition, evaluation distribution
  • Provide mechanism for varietal testing and release (NUYT, VEC)
  • Establish national and international linkages
  • Communication between farmer and researcher
  • Joint research planning and monitoring

Research:

  • Research should based relating to farmer problem
  • Breeding for higher fodder yield, quality and resistance against diseases
  • Standardized/ refinement of improved production technologies
  • Conduct research on issues of national importance, documentation and dissemination of results

Development/services:

  • Adaptability testing of exotic fodder crops hybrids
  • Improved seed production to the farmers
  • Developmental research project
  • Training/ capacity building

Authors: Arslan Ali, Usman Zulifqar, Ali Raza, Umair Rasool

Author: Arslan Ali

Support us by sharing this content :)
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  

Leave a Reply