Among all the crops, the total loss due to the pests varied for each crop likely for wheat 50%, cotton 80%, maize 31%, rice 37%, potatoes 40%, and soybean 26%. Weeds are major problem in production and its effects are almost 34% losses. Pathogens and animal pests are also problem in production but its loss is less as compared to pests, loss due to pathogens is 16% and animal pests is 18%. (Oerke, 2006).

Agricultural pests like weeds, insects, pests and plant pathogen are managed by using pesticide-insecticide. To control the pests the cost of machinery, fuel and labor is reduce (Osteen and Szmedra, 1989; Fernandez-Cornejo et al., 1998; Gardner et al., 2009). The advantages of pesticides are production cost is lower, yield is high and farmer’s revenues become high (USDA/ERS, 2010).

Some common benefits and disadvantages of biopesticides in comparison with conventional


Benefits Disadvantages
Less toxic Short shelf life
Biodegrade more quickly Limited field persistence
More targeted to specific pest Narrower target range
Specific mode of action Specific mode of action
Manage rather than eradicate

(maintain ecological balance)

Slower acting (slower kill rate)


Pesticides are used to increase for the crop production in agricultural farms. But the pesticide also have some sewer effects on human health even death because it contains poison. These residues are more effective on children as compared to adults.

Different agricultural practices are used to keep the pest population below the economic threshold level. Use of pesticides application is the most adoptable technique used by farmers for the production of agricultural products. But these chemical pesticides caused many serious problems. Due to indiscriminate use of pesticides for the better production of agricultural products, food residues remains in these products which cause health problems in human after consumption of these products.

Asthma, learning disabilities, diabetes, birth defects, autism, reproductive dysfunction, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, and many types of cancer are the most common diseases which effects the health of human in 21st century. The chronic diseases and deaths rate is about 1 million/year people due to the pesticides because it contains poison (Environews Forum, 1999).

The residues of pesticide remain in or on the food after they applied on crops (McNaught and Wilkinson, 1997). In many countries it were seen that the levels of these residues in foods are often stipulated by regulatory bodies. Now people are going to aware about the residues that occur in the edible food. Several pesticide residues, especially exhibit bioaccumulation, derivatives of chlorinated pesticides which could develop harmful effect in human and animal body, also in environment (Crinnion, 2009).

Pesticides- insecticides can contaminate turf, soil, water and other vegetation. The reducing or finishing the insects-pests or weeds we use pesticide- insecticides but it also be harmful for the other organism like beneficial insects, birds and also non-target crop or plants. Pesticide-insecticides contain acute toxic, but herbicides also pose risks to other plants or non-target organism (Aktar et al., 2009).

According to data published by the Medicine Inspecting institute of the Ministry of Agriculture of the People’s Republic of China. In 2008, the total 97 varieties of active ingredients (registered) of biogenic pesticides were existed in China. In 2008 the China cover the market with bio-pesticide with 6 billion yuan and it is the 10% of total sale of pesticide. Now currently, there are 3 problems exist in popularizing bio-pesticides in China. First, the low agricultural production income results in farmers’ insufficient demand. Second, most of the Chinese bio-pesticide enterprises have backward production technology, a small sales volume, and low independent innovation ability, and the industry concentration is low. Third, the use of bio-pesticides is only being promoted in limited varieties of agricultural products, such as leafy vegetables, melons and fruits, tea, and Chinese herbs, and they are promoted on a small scale. The Government of China must slowly implement the rigorous agricultural environmental policies and strong measure to upgrade bio-pesticide to control the pest in agricultural production.

In bio-pesticide there are certain of pesticide derived from natural materials as bacteria, certain minerals, animals and plants. There are three types of major classes of bio-pesticides:

Organic farming is a system used to produce agricultural products like food and fiber. The main aim of organic farming is that to develop biological diversity in field to disturb the habitat for the organisms of pests, and the purposeful maintenance and replenishment of soil fertility. Bio-pesticides are used in organic agriculture for minimizing the pest population. In organic agriculture, the conventional farmers used 90% of all pesticide (Marrone, 2011). Bio-pesticides have bright future in case of organic agriculture.

Bio-pesticide is used for the modification of development of insect and behavior exerts unique approach for management of insect population. The application of Bio-pesticide based on the principle that is to provide safety to the human and environment. Wide research is going on and it required much more in future to achieve the improvement. The future of bio-pesticide would fully depends on adoption of application of bio-pesticide. Versatile use of bio-pesticide must meet the aims. The must able to control/suppress/kill the harmful insects pests and also prevent them, relatively in proper manner to conventional methods. Researchers, producers and farmers should widely explore the use and find the safe environment and also maximum production of crops.


EditorialArticlesbiopesticide,food,SafetyAmong all the crops, the total loss due to the pests varied for each crop likely for wheat 50%, cotton 80%, maize 31%, rice 37%, potatoes 40%, and soybean 26%. Weeds are major problem in production and its effects are almost 34% losses. Pathogens and animal pests are also...Pakistan's Only Newspaper on Science and Technology
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