Honey Bees disappearing from the globe, a perilous fact
1400 years ago, Quran refers to bee that generates honey. And your Lord inspired to the honey bees, “Take for you self among the mountains, houses and amount the trees and [in] that which they construct. Then eat from all the fruits and follow the ways of your Lord laid down [for you]”. There emerges from their bellies a drink, varying in colors, in which there is healing for people. Indeed, that is a sign for people who give thoughts. [Al-Quran – Surah An-Nahl].
Honey bees are highly sophisticated social insect that has evolved over millions of years. Literature supports that honey bees were first discovered in Myanmar (Burma) 100 million years ago.
Honey bees have cast system consisting of queen, worker and drones. Queen is only fertile female that controls the hive and nourished specifically for laying eggs. Workers, majority population of colony, are responsible for nectar and pollen collection, hive maintenance and security concerns. Only drones are males, product of unfertile eggs. They don’t have any work in the colony except to mate with queen.
Honey bees nector collection
Honey Bees regularly visit and collect nectar from flowers. Its though they make about 10 million nectar-collecting trips to produce enough honey to fill a 450g jar. Collecting nectar stored in her honey sac, a specialized part of gut and here small amount of protein is added in nectar to convert into sugar.
This sugary substance enriched with energy is called honey. It has countless health benefits and is important element of traditional medication such as antiseptics, helps in normal blood regulation, and aids in weight loss, maintain blood sugar level, good source of vitamins and minerals. It also uses in cosmetic to helps in creating smooth and beautiful skin.
Apiculture products such as pollen, wax for food processing, propolis in food technology, and royal jelly used as a dietary supplement and as an ingredient in food.
Another marvelous health service of honey bees is “Apitherapy or bee sting therapy by which bee venom is used in the treatment of some conditions like multiple sclerosis, arthritis, wounds, pain, gout, shingles, burns, tendonitis, and infections.
For the reproductive stage of plants, pollination is essential process; mostly insects are carrying pollination process. Among all insects, Honey bee is excellent pollinator. Naturally, its legs are morphologically modify into pollen collecting basket to facilitate the pollination.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimates that of the 100-crop species that provide 90% of food worldwide, 71 are pollinated by honey bees. Pollination by bees is a very sensitive and complex process and, as a matter of fact, these are qualitative properties, which cannot be measured in terms of economic index. That’s why Elbert Einstein said that if the Bee disappeared off the surface of the globe, then man would’ve only four years left.
In lieu of latest report on honey bees mortality in France, there is a dramatic decline observing in the population dynamics of honey bee in most regions of world. This report reveal that in America, Japan, Europe and Asian countries the sudden abate in bees population poses a serious threat to crop production.
Furthermore, this report narrate about the causes of this chaos. These are injudicious use of pesticides, detrimental human activities, pollution and non-resilient harsh climate.
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) documented a number of risks posed to bees by three
neonicotinoid insecticides, clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam as seed treatment or as
granules, with particular regard to their acute and chronic effects on bee colony survival and development.
Studies have shown these chemicals absorbed through pollen and nectar weakens
bees and affects their abilities to forage and navigate. These are ban in Europe and under
review in Canada and the United States. Unfortunately, these pesticides are massively applying in
crop fields of Pakistan against different pests.
In spite of its noteworthy services to mankind, population of bees is at stake due to various factors. Thus, escalating urbanization, habitat that nurture honey bee is vanishing by each passing day.
Forests are disappearing; the Berry trees are cutting for fuel, thus consequently the refusal of
breeding places to honey bees. Air pollution, obnoxious pesticides residues and noisy environment are
major factors enhancing mortality rate among honey bee. Ironically, our major crop production is
chiefly depends upon honey bee survival. So, what will happen to our survival if bees will
obsolete entirely from the globe, even no one can imagine.