Now a day, in our daily life we are facing two most serious problems that are environmental pollution and energy crisis. Basic need of modern life is energy and Pakistan is an energy scarce country.
Energy crisis making bad effect and abolishing the economy. Demand and consumption of energy increase within time show that energy will be one of the major problems in the world.
Pakistan includes in energy deficient country and also heavy dependence on imported fuels has become a great hindrance to socio-economic development in Pakistan. These scenario restrictions potentials in the establishing of new industrial sectors and rise price of local fuels. The present gap between production and demand of electricity in Pakistan is about 5000 t0 8000 MW with constant increase of 6 to 8 % per year. Therefore, more renewable and sustainable sources of energy are required to overcome the current problem.
Pakistan is gifted by possible renewable resources of energy like hydro, biomass, solar and wind. These resources have ability to be major contributors to upcoming energy production matrix, efforts of climate change reduction, sustainable energy development of the country. In the southern Asia region, Pakistan is contributing about 2.56 % of the total population and one of the most populated countries. As an international trade, the country is expected to assist and energy corridor in the near future due to its considered position.
Most demanding renewable source which is used for energy purpose is solar cell. As compare with other energy sources such as petroleum deposits and fossils fuels, solar cell have many advantages. It is a substitute which is favorable and constant to meet demand of the high energy. Solar energy is that energy which is coming from sun and provides a consistent and sustainable supply of energy that is environment friendly. By using solar cells the solar energy can converts into electrical energy. Prior photo voltaic solar cells that transform sunlight energy into electrical power are thin silicon wafers. In 1970 beginning the superconductors, new solar cell as absorbing resources to use their single characteristics of different perovskites have been studied.
Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel was observed first photo voltaic (PV) effect in 1839. After, the first modern silicon solar cell was designed via Russel Ohl in 1946.
The recent technology of photovoltaic is constructed on the principle of formation of hole- electron, in each cell composed of two different layers (p-type and n-type materials) of a semiconductor material. In structure arrangement, when a sufficient energy photon impinges on the n-type and p-type junction, an electron is emitted via gaining energy after the striking photon and moves from one to another layer. In the process, an electron and a hole create and via this process electrical power is produced.
Halide pervoskite defined by chemical formula ABX3 where X is a halide anion, A and B are cations of different size, A is an organic ammonium cation (in general CH3NH3), and B is a metal (Pb or Sn). Perovskite solar cells have numerous advantages above conventional silicon and thin film based solar cells.
The efficiency of Perovskite solar cells are up to 31%. It can be anticipated that these perovskites can also play a significant role in next-generation electric automobiles batteries, according to a remarkable investigation newly performed via Volkswagen. But, recent issues with perovskite solar cells are their stability and durability. The material degrades over time, and hence a drop in overall efficiency. Therefore more research is needed to bring these cells into the market place. Future appearance of pervoskite solar cell is very bright. High mobilities, high absorption coefficients, and the tunable band gap with 18% efficiency of perovskite solar cells were gotten in various device structures.
Solar cell can overcome the energy crisis. Sun light is available for long part of year, so now need to make solar cell itself in Pakistan.