Isolation of menthol from various Mentha varieties using physical processes
Menthol is a biologically active ingredient of viable worth and is utilize in a number of industries. The essential oil acquired from various Mentha species frequently comprises menthol as chief component (40-85%). The Mentha species have extraordinary menthol contents are Mentha arvensis named as Japanese mint (80-85%) and Mentha piperata recognized as American peppermint (50-55%). These species characterize the supreme economical resource for extraction and crystallization of menthol. Mint plants will be harvest at flowering stage and processed using hydro distillation process to produce essential oil.
The aims and objectives:
- Essential oil extraction from various species of Mentha.
- Fractionation of different components of extracted essential oil.
- Isolation and segregation of Menthol from extracted plus segmented essential oil yield.
- To analyze the anti-microbial, anti-insects and anti-inflammatory activities of Mentha essential oil.
- Genus Mentha as a source of industrial product
Mostly, In Pakistan, Mentha is not considered as a full-fledged crop; it is cultivated commonly in the lawns plus in the form of intercropping. Mentha oil is frequently used in numerous household stuffs like tooth pastes, shampoos, sweets, drinks, creams, chocolates, powders as well as several more cosmetics and pharmaceutical products in Pakistan. Usually, the manufacturers of such goods do not extract the essential oil of Mentha but they purchase ready-made crystals from various markets like “Qarshi” purchase the menthol oil crystals from various markets (Mandiz and Pansar) of Lahore like Akbari Mandi. The information about the extraction of essential oil of Mentha in Pakistan is not easily available. However, this crop has capacity if its value addition is done wisely. Being as this crop does not take much cost as the initial expenses; it is viable to cultivate it as proper crop.
Plants of genus Mentha
Mentha varieties are fragrant, virtually perennial, seldom annual herbs. These are broadly distributed, rapid growing and spreading their influence along surfaces via network of runners. Harvesting of Mentha can origin simply in soil or water as well as matured herbs can be divided and transplanted. Mentha desires a rich, moist soil with a slight acidic pH from 6.5 to 7.0 for proper growth. The Mentha crop gives paramount essential oil yield when it has truly attained the blossoming period. After this peak time, the oil content begins back to decline. The harvested crop must not be stacked for dehydrating under the sun because it has been testified that it may cause the reduction in yield of oil by approximately 20-25%.
Extraction of Mentha essential oil
The Steam-distilled extraction method for the extraction of Mentha oil from its plant material is carry out in an extraction tank and in that the condensate formation of essential oil plus water, is recover at the floor of the platform. Then this extracted material is refrigerated or put into a chiller. The aim to examine in details the essential oil extraction process in sense of calculation of ideal period and withdrawal time. The subject was proposed to hydro-distillation and the collection of oil was done at various times (1 to 3, 4, 6, 12 to 24 h) on three discrete days of separate months (July, August and September). The yield was totally various on all days of extraction and separation gaps. The yields in August and September were significantly greater as compared to that of July. The largest amounts of the extracted oil were achieve in the initial three and for the duration of the final twelve hours.
The major composition of essential oil of typical varities of Mentha essential oil contain menthol (as a major component), acetaldehyde, amyl alcohol, methyl esters, limonene, pinene, phellandrene, cadinene, dimethyl sulphide , and traces of pinene, sabinene, terpinoline, g-terpinene, fenchene, citronellol and luteolin-7-O-rutinoside. M. arvensis consists of menthol (35-70%), menthone (15-30%), menthyl acetate (4-14%) and pulegone (1-4%) and more recently, linarin (acacetin-7-O-rutinoside) was extracted from the flower of M. arvensis .The M. piperata essential oil contains averagely 50-60% dementholised oil as well as 40-50% menthol. The dementholised oil comprises of free menthol (43%-44%), menthone (24%-25%), menthyl acetate (23%-24%) and traces of several hydrocarbons (6%-7%).
Leaves of Mentha are being utilize as a significantly tonic for cough, fever, headache, cold, stomach disorders and asthma. Mentha plants are also being used to treat diarrhea, influenza and vomiting. Sometimes, dried Mentha leaves are also being eat to lessen swelling of gums, chest pains, relieve arthritis and toothaches. Allergic viruses are reasonably viral about entire the globe and encompass the completely ethnic classes through allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, eczema and conjunctivitis being the public indications. The quantitative and qualitative strength of phytochemicals and estimation of the anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic actions by means of organic and aqueous extracts of various parts (root, stem and leaves) of different species of Mentha in animals, showed that all of Mentha plants (specifically leaves) are wealthy source of secondary phyto-components, which expose their beneficial effects against inflammatory and allergic diseases. These outcomes reinforce the demand regarding the usage of Mentha in traditional medication. The purpose of the examination was to assess the anti-microbial properties of essential oils in vitro for a viable application to lessen the contents of microbes in air of habitats of animals (poultry farms etc.). The least effectively inhibitory concentrations of the dynamic essential oils were being verify via broth dilution assay at strengths ranging from 0.1 to 50.0%. The oils displayed wide-ranging spectra of anti-bacterial activity: concentrations of 0.1–0.8%.
Muhammad Nazim*1, Muqarrab Ali1, Qurat-ul-Ain Sadiq2, and Ishrat Zaman 1
1 Department of Agronomy, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, University of Agriculture Multan, Pakistan
2 Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Muhammad Nawaz Shareef, University of Agriculture Multan, Pakistan