January 7th, 2018 | M.Abbas | No Comments
Different fruits have different charms, jack fruit is one of them. The word jackfruit comes from Portuguese. Garcia de Orta, physicians firstly named jackfruit in 1953 in his book. In Urdu, Jackfruit is called Kathal. Its botanical name is Artocarpus heterophyllus and family belongs to Moraceae. Its order is rosales in kingdom plantae. Its genus is Artocarpus. It is native to South India. South India includes cities like Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala etc. In India, Jackfruit plays a significant role in agriculture sector. Jackfruit is popular in Tropical regions. Jackfruit is the national fruit of Bangladesh. It is largest tree-borne of fruit. Jackfruit is reliable sources of vitamin C. Jackfruit seeds are rich in proteins, calcium and in iron as well. One fruit of jackfruit contains 100 calories approximately. Jackfruit is 35 kg in weight, 90 cm in length and 50 cm in diameter. Jackfruit leaves are oval in shape and dark green in color. Jack fruit produce 100 to 200 fruits in a year. It is a multiple fruit which contains hundreds of thousands of individual flowers. Jackfruit has a beautiful and sweet taste. When we boil jackfruit, it tastes like a potato. India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Nepal are major exporters of jackfruit.
Jack fruit belongs to humid tropical region. It is sensitive to frost and cannot tolerate drought. For cultivation of Jack fruit, warm and sunny season is required. It is rich in deep soil. It is grown more slowly in limestone rich soil. Jack fruit has best soil pH range between 6.0 to 7.5. Jackfruit should be growing in flat land. Planting should be from 8 to 10 meters. In hilly areas, planting should be done according to their slopes of the land. Jack fruit propagated through seed and germination can be done from 3 to 8 weeks. Budding and grafting is not successful. In jack fruit, vegetative cutting and tissue culture give better results. Pruning is unnecessary for young jackfruit tree. Pruning can be done only for removal of disease parts of the jackfruit tree. Jack fruit should be ripened from March to June or from April to September. Fruit maturity requires 3 to 8 months from flowering. After harvesting, jackfruit becomes good in flavor. Hand pollination can be very successful for jackfruit. In India, 150 large fruit per tree is a good yield. Almost these types of fruits are medium or small in size. Jackfruits turn brown and become worse quickly after ripening. Fruit can be kept 3 to 6 weeks under 52*c to 55*c. Relative humidity can be require from 85 to 95%. In summer, daily water the immature jackfruit tree. Fertilizers are not necessary in Jackfruit tree. Weeding can be done every 3 months. So, fruit can be bear from 10 to 14 years and improved varieties can be bear from 4 to 5 years. Jack fruit have several varieties like Koozha, Pazham, Singapore, Ceylon, Safeda, Khaja, Bhusila, Handia and T Nagar Jack are the best varieties of jackfruit.
Jackfruit leaves are useful for skin disease and curing fewer. Jackfruit seeds are useful for blood circulation. Jackfruit contains zero cholesterol and benefit for carbohydrates and energy. Jackfruit is very good for blood pressure patient as well. Jackfruit is also good for human digestion system and stops constipation. Jackfruit also improves vision of eyesight. By eating jackfruit, heart failure losses can be reduced. Jackfruit is very useful to treat asthma. Jackfruit is also useful for human bones. Jackfruit seeds can be used for healthy hairs. We can also use jackfruit in soups, chips, jams or in ice-cream. The wood of jackfruit tree is useful for manufacturing musical instrument, furniture door etc. The root of jackfruit keeps us away from diarrhea. Jackfruit production is 2082.32 tons per year in India. Jack fruit contain shoot-borer caterpillar, mealy bugs, spittle bug and jack scale insect pest. Important diseases of jackfruit are pink disease, stem rot, fruit rot, gray blight, collar rot, charcoal rot etc.
M.Abbas1, Rashad Muhktar Balal1, M. Ali Khakwani2 (1Department of Horticulture, College of agriculture, University of Sargodha) (2Department of Horticulture, 2BZU, Multan)
Published in: Volume 09 Issue 01
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