TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH applies findings from basic science to enhance human health and well-being. The efforts and objectives include in the medical research ambiance is to simplify the findings of basic research into medicine and nursing practice and provide consequential health benefits. Nowadays, the most promising field of translational research is regenerative medicines. Regenerative medicines are a multidisciplinary field of research and analytical applications that deal with the process of replacing, engineering or regenerating diseased human cells, tissues or organs to improve natural function by the transmission of safe, potent and uniform therapies composed of living cells, administered either alone or in combination with specially designed materials.
Regenerative medicines stimulate the bodys own rehabilitation system to actively heal previously diseased tissues or organs. If the body cannot repair the diseased tissue or organ itself, these diseased tissues or organs can also grow in the laboratory through regenerative medicines and cautiously implanted in the body. To avoid the problem of organ transplant rejection and shortage, the cells of patients own tissue or organ are taken for regeneration.
From past three decades, tissue engineering is a potentially active mechanism in the development of regenerative medicines. Biomaterials are used for the development of functional tissues. The synergy of cells with extracellular matrix (ECM) is determined for functional tissue morphogenesis. In contrast synthetic polymers such as polylactide (PLLA) and polyglycolide (PLGA) and biological polymers such as chitosan, fibrin, collagen, and alginate are mostly biodegradable, possess the tendency to shapes, size and architecture themselves. For the development of hard tissues these synthetic and biological polymers alone or with a bioactive material such as hydroxyapatite form durable and spongy material. Xenogeneic material and different non-cellular matrix have been used progressively in tissue engineering of animal models.
The commercially used xenogeneic decellularized by-products are for urinary bladder, heart valves, and small intestinal sub mucosa. Naturally derived biopolymers such as derivatives of carbohydrates and collagen, elastin, laminin, and fibronectin are used for drug delivery and skin soft tissue utilization. The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid (HA) has been approved for clinical use at the commercial level. It is used in humans for fluid viscosity, knee pain and sheet development in adhesions surgery. By increasing the efficiency of HA, cell exodus, growth and amplification can be modified.
Similarly, Collagen is artificially formed from recombinant technology and implanted with chondrocytes. This recombinant collagen type II is much efficient in the formation of cartilage as compare to native collagen. Human distributed stem cells (DSC) produce other DSCs like cardiac stem cells and neural stem cells that are clinically important. While Neuregulin (NRG), I also improve cardiovascular activity.
No doubt regenerative medicines have many applications they also face some challenges in the continuous development of clinical products. The most prominent are the use of biomaterials or terminally differentiated cell for cell therapy. There is need for determination of suitable surface markers for confirmation of pluripotent/ multipotent/ precursors cells, by using nanotechnology, improvement of man-made or natural materials (Nano surfaces) to increase cell development, reproduction and cell attachment is still in evolutionary stage, for the discovery of drugs, the use of stem cells with the advancement of biomaterials, the changes in the karyotype due to continued culture conditions should be minimized, selection of desired karyotype through clonal assays, development of three-dimensional approaches for good laboratory practice (GLP) services instead of two-dimensional cultures used in laboratories, establishment of computerized cell expansion using on- intrusive sensors to measure cell viability, the use of suitable imaging devices to determine cell fate, engraftment and cell viability, the need for overwhelming the immunological hurdles when allogeneic products are working, and establishment of appropriate bioreactors and other materials used for regenerative medicines.