Production technology of maize

Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from Spanish: maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a large grain plant first domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mexico[1] about 8,000 years ago.

Production technology of maizeDisseminated overseas in early 1500’s. Early types were flints and flours. Considerable variability due to open pollination. Dent types emerged about 1500 years ago. 1940’s: Hybrid corn seed. The six major types of corn are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, popcorn, flour corn, and sweet corn.

The leafy stalk of the plant produces separate pollen and ovuliferous inflorescences or ears, which are fruits, yielding kernels or seeds. Maize kernels are often used in cooking as a starch.

Maize is a popular kharif fodder in Pakistan and finds much use as fodder for livestock and poultry. The crop can be harvested in 60 – 65 days and it can be grown in most parts of the country.

The green stalk has high carbohydrate contents so it is an enchanting feed for poultry. Hybrid seed should not be used for fodder purposes because they have less foliage, and short stature with less nutrition.

Hybrid seed corn development

Develop stable ‘inbred’ lines. Cross two different inbred lines. Plant the seed produced (F1 hybrid). Offspring will yield 2-5X parents. New developments are herbicide resistant   (glyphosate and some others) and internal insecticide producing transgenic varieties.

New developments are herbicide resistant (glyphosate and some others) and internal insecticide producing transgenic varieties.

One year crop rotation

  1. Maize –  wheat
  2. Maize – Barseem
  3. Maize – B.T Cotton

Two year crop rotation

  1. Maize – wheat – maize – barseem
  2. Maize – wheat – cotton – barseem

Soil and climate

Best growth on fertile, well drained, medium-textured soils. Salinity and water logging are harmful at seedling stage. Suitable temperature for germination is 21-32oC.

Better yield of maize is observed at pH 5.5-8 of soil. Continuous water logging for 3 days reduce the yield by 40-45%. Temperature >35oC reduce the pollen. Temperature < 15oC delay the silking and tasseling. 500-750 mm rainfall is required for growth.

Production technologies

  • Land preparation

Two to three ploughing after harvesting. Cost of hal 500-600 for ploughing. Use rotavatiour to mix the soil and to degrade the clots 1200-1500. Use ridger to make ridges and furrows and the cost of the ridger per acre is 1000rupees.

Maintain the distance between furrows approximately 75cm. Row to row distance 26-28inches. Plant to plant distance should be 6inches (hybrid) for early sowing. 8-10 inches (hybrid) for late sowing

Plowing has greatly decreased in recent years as planting equipment became available that allow seedling in to standing crops. Conservation tillage system prevent soil erosion, conserve water, and reduce cost of production. Corn can be used with all conservation tillage system.

  • Ridge planting
  • Flat planting

The land with optimum moisture after rainfall or irrigation is loosened 20-25 cm deep through ploughing or disking 2-3 times, immediately followed by planking.

  • Sowing methods
  • Ridge sowing
  1. Manual method (chopa method);  its common in Pakistan
  2. Tractor drawn ridger ; ridges are made by ridger and the distance between the two ridges 27inches.
  • P×P= 20-25 cm
  • R×R= 75 cm
  • Flat sowing
  1. Automatic tractor drawn drill or manual/hand drill
  • R×R= 75 cm
  • Thinning  after 10-15 days of emergence
  • Plant population  70,000 to 75,000/ha
  • Sowing times Jan-march for early sowing called as spring crop and maturity of crop within 50-60days. And yield of crop comes in 100-120 Munds. Jun-Aug. for late sowing called as autumn crop in this maturity of crop increases than 60 days. And yield comes from it is 60-80 Munds
  1. Spring  
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1st week of February – 1st week of March.

  1.    Autumn

Last week of July – mid of August.

  • Seed rate

     10-12 kg/acre or 35000 seeds/ acre

  • Seed treatment

Immediately after the emergence of plant from Seed to prevent from shoot fly and other insects. Seed is treated with fungicides before sowing so it may prevent from these. Telsa & Aghaz is used as fungicides.

Varieties

  • Pakistani varieties

Neelam, Akbar, Sargodha 2002 and Sultan. Sargodha 2002 is a new promising variety. It can remain green in the field for longer duration of time and the production can also be increased to 50 Mounds per acre with an average yield of around 600 mounds per acre.

Some other varieties are followings:

  1. Sahiwal 2002
  2. Agati 2002
  3. Sadaf
  • Pakistani hybrids
  • Some hybrids of Pakistan are following:
  1. H- 810
  2. H- 421
  3. P-1543
  4. P-1574
  5. DEKLB-6724

MAIZE VARIETIES DEVELOP BY DIFFERENT INSTITUTES UNDER NARS

Khyber CCRI, Pirsabak 1974 Full Season, semi dent, white, 115 days
Zia CCRI, Pirsabak 1974 Short season, dent, white, 95 days
Sadaf MMRI, Yousafwala 1975 Full season, semident, white, 115 days
Changaz CCRI, Pirsabak 1976 Short season, dent, white, 100 days
Shaheen CCRI, Pirsabak 1977 Short season, flint, white, 80 days
Sarhad white CCRI, Pirsabak 1978 Full season, semi dent, white, 115 days maturity
Sarhad Yellow CCRI, Pirsabak 1979 Full season, semi dent, yellow, 115 days maturity
Dehqan CCRI, Pirsabak 1981 Full season, semi dent, white, 115 days maturity
Faisal MMRI, Yousafwala 1981 Short season, semi dent, yellow, 100 days maturity
Golden Pearl MMRI, Yousafwala 1981 Full season, semi dent, yellow, 120 days maturity
Afrat MMRI, Yousafwala 1982 Short season, flint, yellow, 100 days maturity
Munawar CCRI, Pirsabak 1983 Full season, semi dent, white, 110 days maturity
Sunehri MMRI, Yousafwala 1985 Short season, semi dent, yellow, 100 days
New Shaheen CCSI, Pirsabak 1985 Short season, flint, white, 75 days maturity
Kashmir Gold NARC, Islamabad 1983 Short season, semi dent, yellow, 105 days
Gauher NARC, Islamabad 1985 Short season, flint, white, 95 days maturity
Azam CCRI, Pirsabak 1986 Short season, semi dent, white, 95 days maturity
Ehsan CCRI, Pirsabak 1986 Short season, white, 100 days maturity
Sultan MMRI, Yousafwala 1986 Full season, Semi dent, yellow, 115 days maturity
Kissan CCRI, Pirsabak 1990 Short season, semi dent, white, 95 days maturity
Agaiti-85 MMRI, Yousafwala 1995 Short season, semi dent, yellow, 90 days maturity
Golden MMRI, Yousafwala 1995 Full season, semi dent, yellow, 115 days
Pahari CCRI, Pirsabak 1995 Short season, semi dent, white 85 days maturity
Agaiti-2002 MMRI, Yousafwla 2002 Short season, semi dent, yellow, 90 days maturity
Sahiwal-2002 MMRI, Yousafwala 2002 Full season, semi dent, yellow, 120 days maturity
Chandni MMRI, Yousafwala 2004 Full season, semi flint, white, 110 days maturity
Jalal CCRI, Pirsabak 2004 Short season, flint, white, 95 days maturity
Iqbal CCRI, Pirsabak 2008 Full season, semi dent, white, 115 days
MMRI Yellow MMRI, Yousafwala 2011 Full season, semi dent, yellow, 120 days
Pearl MMRI, Yousafwala 2011 Full season, semi dent, white, 115 days
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Fertilizer application

Two bag of Dap and 1 bag of potash uses at sowing time. 3-4bags of Urea per acre uses at splits form at the time of 3 4 5  6 7 8 irrigation. furadan (dane dar) use in newly flower for shoot borer Fertilizer rate for maize is 250-150-100 kg NPK/ha.

All P & K at the time of sowing

  • ½  Nat the time of sowing
  • ½ N is added to soil in 2 splits
  1. 1stwhen the crop is at knee height
  2. 2nd at tasseling

Application methods

  • Side band
  • Deep band
  • Pop up method (This placement option describes fertilizer placed in contact with the corn seed. Both liquid and dry materials can be used as “pop-up” fertilizer).
  • Broadcast
  • Seed placed

Seed quantity                                                                               

33000-35000 seeds are used per acre which almost 8-10 kg. Plant dips one inches in soil. 1000rupees cost for bed planting both sides of the ridge. 1500rupees cost for bed planting on single side of the ridge.                                                                                                                                Irrigation 

First irrigation should be done after 3 weeks of sowing. Later, irrigate the field according to the crop requirements. It should be kept in mind that no water remains in field or else plants will die. Maize is drought sensitive crop. It require 500-750 mm of water. An irrigation within 10-15 days interval results in good growth.

Moisture stress at critical stages i.e.

  • Flowering
  • Fertilization
  • Milking
  • Yield reduction up to 40%.
  • 6-10 irrigations requires depending on climate, soil   type and method of sowing.
Phases Irrigations  DAS
Germination phase Two irrigations 1st after sowing, 2nd as life irrigation 4th day.
Vegetative phase Three irrigation 12, 25, 36th DAS
Flowering phase Two irrigation on 48, 60th day
Maturity phase One irrigation on 72nd day.
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Weed control

According to an idea weeds damages 20-50% of crop. so control of weed should do very carefully

Chemical control

Pre- emergence Post- emergence
Primextra Gold at 800 ml/acre Atrazine at 350 ml/acre(15 days after weed emergence)
Pendimethalin at 1300 ml/acre
Dewal Dold at 800 ml/acre

Cultural control

It is done manually. Manual hoeing about 25 days after sowing. It is suitable for small scale

Disease:

For the control of Root borer, funnel (carbinran and fafanone) is applied on the plants. First application of funnel is done, on 3-4 leaves emergence and second time is applied at keen height of the plant

Insects of maize

Shoot fly :

Crop growth retarded in case of shoot fly attack it sucks the plant and also damages the newly branches of the plant.

Stem borer:

In autumn maize this attacks in April. This maize borer severely damages the crop. It effects the center part of the corn and start eating them.

Army worm:

The larvae of the army worms comes in the form of army and attacks on the veins of leaves and eat the green part and hole becomes visible in the leave

Harvesting

70% corns fall downwards to the ground, still remain attach to the plants. And become dot/ layer on the grain. Maize crop is harvested at moisture content 20-25%. Cobs are remove from standing crop and dried under sunlight until the moisture content of the grains is <15%

The fodder crop should be harvest when 50% of the flowers are apparent. The crop is ready to harvest in 55 – 65 days. Yield depends upon the variety used like mentioned earlier if good variety is used and all the cultural practices have been done properly yields up to 500 mounds per acre can be obtained

Shelling of cobs

Hand operated or powered Sheller

Storage

Shelled maize grains after cleaning are stored in jute sacks in a cool, dry and airy place, either on a cement floor or on wooden planks; it should not be stored on earthen floors. The temperature of store room is kept 20-25C while relative humidity is maintained at 30-50 %.

Labor cost:

Plantation of seed on ridges 1500 rupees
Plantation of seed on beds (for bed sowing) 1000 rupees
Rotavator 1200 rupees
Ridger 1000 rupees/acre
Ploughing 2000 rupees
Tube well on electricity 400 rupees/hrs
Tube well on Tractor 700-800 pees/hrs
ansa rebi
Author: ansa rebi

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