Nanotechnology or a Nano science is a type of technology in which research on micro level. In this very sensitive and micro equipment or machine produced. We can understand this technology by that its products range between 0.1 to 100 nm.

Role of Nanotechnology for the improvement of agriculture

Nanotechnology  potential to the unique properties of nano particles (e.g. high volume to surface ratio and high solubility). Therefore, nano particles show an increased reactivity and efficiency. This is however not a universal definition of nanotechnology as definitions differ regarding size and properties of nanomaterial.   

Nanotechnology

History of Nanotechnology

In 1974 Professor of Science University Tokyo, Norio Taniguchi was first used this word. In 1986 Eric Drexler write a book Engines of creation: The coming era nanotechnology. Drexler did PhD in nanotechnology and he was the first person who did PhD in this field.

Invention of Nanotechnology

There are many nano particle and equipment are present in nanotechnology such as nano particle, nano capsule, nano sensors, nano tubers, nano carbon tubers and many more. In animals and plants these particles are used to modify genes. There are some nano tools present also in soil that helps in improving the fertility of soil.

Nano Types

Agriculture Use

Nano particle

Removal of poison from poultry feed

Nano Sensors

Identification of disease causing germs

Nano Capsule

Providing of medicine

Nano Side

Use of antibiotics

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Nano Particles

Nano particles have been created from Copper, Silver, Gold, Titanium Dioxide, Silicon Dioxide, Platinum and Palladium also lot of under research. These particle is billionth part of every measurement. That particles are smaller then virus. They are mostly oval and round shaped. When we convert any things in its nano particles then it shows its individual particles property. For example melting point of nano gold particles less than the micro particles.

Nano gold show poisons effect on Salmonella typhiranum but not in micro form in similar case silver nano particles have ability to defense against bacteria and fungi but not in micro silver particles. We cannot see nano particles under optical microscope.

How to get Nano Particles

Given bellow

Chemical Method

Copper nano particles produce from this method.  Degrading material Sodium borohideride and ascorbic used for degrading the large size of copper piece. This method harms to environment.

Biological Method

Those particles produced from this method not harmful for environment. Scientist proved that by the using of micro organisms micro particles convert in nano particles. For the degrading of particles in biological methods plants and microorganisms are used.  

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Using extract of plants

 For the preparation of nano particles extract of plants is affordable method. For the preparation of silver nano particles orange leafs are used for degradation of it.

Preparation through micro organisms

Fungi

F. semitectum, F. oxysorum and F. solani can be use for preparation of nano particles.

Bacteria

 Desulfovibrio desulfuricans is use for the preparation of nano particles. Lactobacillus Sp. used for oval shaped titanium nano particles.

Sino Bacteria

Aabaena, Calothrix and Leptdyngbya are used for preparation of silver and gold nano particles.

Role of Nano particles in Agriculture

As we know in nano technology nano particles use for detection of disease, increase of production and for the treatment of water transportation. In agriculture  the main role of nano technology to improved production and  reduction in cost, keep in minds its harms effects on environment. For the improvement in fertilization nano particles are used. It is also used for the cleaning of water, kill germs, environment remedy, and agricultural waste recycling and improving the shelf life of agricultural products.

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Effects on Plants

Nano pesticides and nano fertilizers accumulate on leaves and flowers and block the stomata. For slow down the production of pollen and inner side of the stigma nano particles made poisons layer. Nano particles also enter in vascular tissue and stop the nutrients movement and photosynthesis.  

 

Ahsan Shabbir*, Ahmed Mukhtar**, Ahtisham-ul-Huq*

*Department of Plant Pathology University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

**Department of Agronomy University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

 

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