Waste water agriculture Threats, challenges and remedies


Raw city effluent represents the untreated sewage or waste water which normally contains plant



nutrient, toxic chemicals, organic and inorganic pollutants and pathogens. The frequency and



volume of effluents are increasing day by day due to unplanned and unchecked urbanization.



The mushroom growth of urban population and industries has absorbed the major share of fresh



water and dispose it into drains in the form of waste water. In Pakistan the bulk

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Skill development needed to combat biosecurity threats





STAFF REPORT ISB: The fast pace of research in life sciences there is a need to develop skills of scientists and researchers to combat biological threats within the region by providing training on biosecurity, biosafety, pathogen surveillance, and infectious disease surveillance and disaster response.

This was the crux of the three-day Regional Workshop on Biosafety and Biosecurity in Life Sciences Research hosted by Pakistan Academy of Sciences (PAS) in collaboration with

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Heatwave, flood biggest climate change threats


STAFF REPORT KHI: Pakistan has become the third top-most affected country in the world hit by climate change in the past few years. This year’s biggest challenge will be the heatwave and flood and there is a desperate to cope with the situation in order to minimize maximum damage to especially to agriculture.

This was stated by Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) Director General Dr Ghulam Rasul while addressing a seminar titled "World Metrological Day" organised by the

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Kinnow orchards exposed to multiple threats in Pakistan




The citrus fruit grown in Pakistan is considered to be the most important for better economic earning and its dietetic value. Citrus has generally been a source of foreign exchange earnings and its domestic need is also growing in the country. There are a lot of stresses which is coming on citrus industry in Pakistan. Due to these stresses especially lack of modern techniques, only 10 per cent citrus is exported to other countries.

Citrus stands as the second most important fruit

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Endoparasitic threats to layer industry in Punjab




During the last few decades, poultry production has become an important sector of the livestock economy worldwide. In Pakistan, every rural family and almost every 5th urban family is associated with poultry production. According to a survey report, about 66 per cent of Pakistan natives are deficient in their proteins diets, whereas; the available proportion is 61.69 g/person/day, which is far behind the actual protein requirement (102.7 g/person/day). Ever increasing prices of mutton

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Pathological threats to mangoes and remedies


By Zeeshan Sattar M.Sc. (Hon’s.), Muhammad Mohsin Raza, Sabir Hussain Khan, Muhammad Aslam Khan and Iqra Ashfaq

MANGO, MANGIFERA indica L. is one of the most important overseas cash earning fruit crop of Pakistan, through exporting to all over the world. It is known as the "King of fruits", because the mango fruit is nutritionally rich in vitamin A and C and carbohydrates. It is savoured and liked by every one for its dietetic value and flavour and is also claimed to be of

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